Excerpts from the “Briefing note for countries on the 2016 Human Development Report: India”:
Human Development Index is a summary measure for assessing progress in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. A long and healthy life is measured by life expectancy at birth. Knowledge level is measured by mean years of education among the adult population, which is the average number of years of education received in a life-time by people aged 25 years and older; and access to learning and knowledge by expected years of schooling for children of school-entry age, which is the total number of years of schooling a child of school-entry age can expect to receive if prevailing patterns of age-specific enrolment rates stay the same throughout the child’s life.
The standard of living is measured by Gross National Income (GNI) per capita expressed in constant 2011 international dollars converted using purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion rates. To ensure as much cross-country comparability as possible, the HDI is based primarily on international data from the United Nations Population Division (the life expectancy at birth data), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics (the mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling data) and the World Bank (the GNI per capita data).
India’s HDI value and rank India’s HDI value for 2015 is 0.624— which put the country in the medium human development category— positioning it at 131 out of 188 countries and territories. Between 1990 and 2015, India’s HDI value increased from 0.428 to 0.624, an increase of 45.7 percent. Between 1990 and 2015, India’s life expectancy at birth increased by 10.4 years, mean years of schooling increased by 3.3 years and expected years of schooling increased by 4.1 years. India’s GNI per capita increased by about 223.4 percent between 1990 and 2015.
India’s 2015 HDI of 0.624 is below the average of 0.631 for countries in the medium human development group and above the average of 0.621 for countries in South Asia. From South Asia, countries which are close to India in 2015 HDI rank and to some extent in population size are Bangladesh and Pakistan, which have HDIs ranked 139 and 147 respectively.
Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI)
The HDI is an average measure of basic human development achievements in a country. Like all averages, the HDI masks inequality in the distribution of human development across the population at the country level. The 2010 HDR introduced the IHDI, which takes into account inequality in all three dimensions of the HDI by ‘discounting’ each dimension’s average value according to its level of inequality. The IHDI is basically the HDI discounted for inequalities.
The ‘loss’ in human development due to inequality is given by the difference between the HDI and the IHDI, and can be expressed as a percentage. As the inequality in a country increases, the loss in human development also increases.
India’s HDI for 2015 is 0.624. However, when the value is discounted for inequality, the HDI falls to 0.454, a loss of 27.2 percent due to inequality in the distribution of the HDI dimension indices. Bangladesh and Pakistan show losses due to inequality of 28.9 percent and 30.9 percent respectively. The average loss due to inequality for medium HDI countries is 25.7 percent and for South Asia it is 27.7 percent. The Human inequality coefficient for India is equal to 26.5 percent.
Gender Development Index (GDI)
The GDI reflects gender inequalities in achievement in the same three dimensions of the HDI: health (measured by female and male life expectancy at birth), education (measured by female and male expected years of schooling for children and mean years for adults aged 25 years and older); and command over economic resources (measured by female and male estimated GNI per capita).
The female HDI value for India is 0.549 in contrast with 0.671 for males, resulting in a GDI value of 0.819, which places the country into Group 5. In comparison, GDI values for Bangladesh and Pakistan are 0.927 and 0.742 respectively.
Gender Inequality Index (GII)
The 2010 HDR introduced the GII, which reflects gender-based inequalities in three dimensions – reproductive health, empowerment, and economic activity. Reproductive health is measured by maternal mortality and adolescent birth rates; empowerment is measured by the share of parliamentary seats held by women and attainment in secondary and higher education by each gender; and economic activity is measured by the labour market participation rate for women and men. The GII can be interpreted as the loss in human development due to inequality between female and male achievements in the three GII dimensions.
India has a GII value of 0.530, ranking it 125 out of 159 countries in the 2015 index. In India, 12.2 percent of parliamentary seats are held by women, and 35.3 percent of adult women have reached at least a secondary level of education compared to 61.4 percent of their male counterparts. For every 100,000 live births, 174 women die from pregnancy related causes; and the adolescent birth rate is 24.5 births per 1,000 women of ages 15-19. Female participation in the labour market is 26.8 percent compared to 79.1 for men.
Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
The education and health dimensions are each based on two indicators, while standard of living is based on six indicators. All of the indicators needed to construct the MPI for a country are taken from the same household survey. The indicators are weighted to create a deprivation score, and the deprivation scores are computed for each household in the survey. A deprivation score of 33.3 percent (one-third of the weighted indicators) is used to distinguish between the poor and nonpoor. If the household deprivation score is 33.3 percent or greater, the household (and everyone in it) is classified as multidimensionally poor. Households with a deprivation score greater than or equal to 20 percent but less than 33.3 percent live near multidimensional poverty. Finally, households with a deprivation score greater than or equal to 50 percent live in severe multidimensional poverty.
The most recent survey data that were publically available for India’s MPI estimation refer to 2005/2006. In India, 55.3 percent of the population (642,391 thousand people) are multidimensionally poor while an additional 18.2 percent live near multidimensional poverty (212,018 thousand people). The breadth of deprivation (intensity) in India, which is the average deprivation score experienced by people in multidimensional poverty, is 51.1 percent.
The MPI, which is the share of the population that is multidimensionally poor, adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations, is 0.282. Bangladesh and Pakistan have MPIs of 0.188 and 0.237 respectively.